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Grade 5-8 PROCESS SKILLS BASED ON STANDARD 4
Science is an ongoing process. Most often there is a question or problem that initiates an investigation searching for a possible solution or solutions. There is no single prescribed scientific
method to govern an investigation. It is important that students practice the skills outlined below. For younger students, the emphasis is on discovery. For older students, the emphasis is on formulating and investigating their own questions
  1. Follow safety procedures in the classroom, laboratory, and field safely and accurately use the following tools:

                        hand lens
                        ruler (metric)
                        balance
                        gram weights
                        spring scale
                        thermometer (C°, F°)
                        measuring cups
                        graduated cylinder
                        timepiece(s)

  1. Develop an appreciation of and respect for all learning environments (classroom, laboratory, field, etc.)
  2. Manipulate materials through teacher direction and free discovery
  3. Use information systems appropriately
  4. Select appropriate standard and nonstandard measurement tools for measurement activities
  5. Estimate, find, and communicate measurements, using standard and nonstandard units
  1. Use and record appropriate units for measured or calculated values order and sequence objects and/or events
  2. Classify objects according to an established scheme
  3. Generate a scheme for classification
  4. Utilize senses optimally for making observations
  5. Observe, analyze, and report observations of objects and events
  6. Observe, identify, and communicate patterns
  1. Observe, identify, and communicate cause-and-effect relationships
  2. Generate appropriate questions (teacher and student based) in response to observations, events, and other experiences
  3. Observe, collect, organize, and appropriately record data, then accurately interpret results
  4. Collect and organize data, choosing the appropriate representation:
  5. Journal entries
  6. Graphic representations
  1. Drawings/pictorial representations
  2. Make predictions based on prior experiences and/or information
  3. Compare and contrast organisms/objects/events in the living and physical environments
  4. Identify and control variables/factors
  5. Plan, design, and implement a short-term and long-term investigation based on a student- or teacher-posed problem
  6. Communicate procedures and conclusions through oral and written presentations
Grades 5-8 INQUIRY SKILLS

Based on Standard 4

General Skills

1. follow safety procedures in the classroom and laboratory

2. safely and accurately use the following measurement tools:

                metric ruler
                balance
                stopwatch
                graduated cylinder
                thermometer
                spring scale
                voltmeter

3. use appropriate units for measured or calculated values

4. recognize and analyze patterns and trends

5. classify objects according to an established scheme and a student-generated scheme

6. develop and use a dichotomous key

7. sequence events

8. identify cause-and-effect relationships

9. use indicators and interpret results

Living Environment Skills

1. manipulate a compound microscope to view microscopic objects

2. determine the size of a microscopic object, using a compound microscope

3. prepare a wet mount slide

4. use appropriate staining techniques

5. design and use a Punnett square or a pedigree chart to predict the probability of certain traits

6. classify living things according to a student-generated scheme and an established scheme

7. interpret and/or illustrate the energy flow in a food chain, energy pyramid, or food web

8. identify pulse points and pulse rates

9. identify structure and function relationships in organisms

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Physical Setting Skills

1. given the latitude and longitude of a location, indicate its position on a map and determine the latitude and

longitude of a given location on a map

2. using identification tests and a flow chart, identify mineral samples

3. use a diagram of the rock cycle to determine geological processes that led to the formation of a specific rock type

4. plot the location of recent earthquake and volcanic activity on a map and identify patterns of distribution

5. use a magnetic compass to find cardinal directions

6. measure the angular elevation of an object, using appropriate instruments

7. generate and interpret field maps including topographic and weather maps

8. predict the characteristics of an air mass based on the origin of the air mass

9. measure weather variables such as wind speed and direction, relative humidity, barometric pressure, etc.

10. determine the density of liquids, and regular- and irregular-shaped solids

11. determine the volume of a regular and an irregular-shaped solid, using water displacement

12. using the periodic table, identify an element as a metal, nonmetal, or noble gas

13. determine the identity of an unknown element, using physical and chemical properties

14. using appropriate resources, separate the parts of a mixture

15. determine the electrical conductivity of a material, using a simple circuit

16. determine the speed and acceleration of a moving object

STANDARD 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Key Idea 1:

The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.

Key Idea 2:

Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

Key Idea 3:

The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

STANDARD 4: The Physical Setting

Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting
and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

Key Idea 1:

The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

Key Idea 2:

Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

Key Idea 3:

Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

Key Idea 4:

Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

Key Idea 5:

Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

STANDARD 4: The Living Environment

Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting
and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

Key Idea 1:

Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things

Key Idea 2:

Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between
parents and offspring.

Key Idea 3:

Individual organisms and species change over time.

Key Idea 4:

The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

Key Idea 5:

Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.

Key Idea 6:

Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.

Key Idea 7:

Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment

STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes

Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

Key Idea 1:

The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomenain a continuing, creative process.

Key Idea 2:

Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

Key Idea 3:

The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

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